Testes lumps and swelling in the testicles or scrotum are not usually caused by anything serious, but you should get them checked by your healthcare provider.

What causes lumps and swelling in the testicles?

Lumps and swellings in the testicles and scrotum can have lots of different causes. Most are caused by something harmless, such as a build-up of fluid (cyst) or swollen veins. Sometimes they can be a sign of something serious, such as testicular cancer.

Here are the causes of testes lumps and or scrotal swelling:

Testicular torsion

You should go to your nearest emergency department if you have testicular torsion (torsion of spermatic cord).

This happens when the spermatic cord, which provides blood flow to the testicle, rotates and becomes twisted. The twisting cuts off the testicle’s blood supply and causes sudden pain and swelling.

Testicular cancer

Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia. It can appear as a swelling or lump in your groin, or as an enlarged scrotum (the pouch containing the testicles). The swelling may be painful. The lump often appears when you’re lifting something and disappears when you lie down. You will need surgery to repair it.


Epididymitis is where a tube (the epididymis) at the back of the testicles becomes swollen and painful. It’s often caused by an infection and is usually treated with antibiotics.


Orchitis is an inflammation of the testicles. It can be caused by either bacteria or a virus. Both testicles may be affected by orchitis at the same time. However, the symptoms usually appear in just one testicle.

This kind of testicular inflammation is often associated with the mumps virus.

Epididymal cyst

An epididymal cyst is a fluid-filled sac that grows in the epididymis – a tube at the back of the testicles. It does not need treatment if it is small or causes no significant symptoms. If it needs treatment, usually surgery is needed to remove it, though this may affect fertility.


Varicocele is a scrotal swelling caused by swollen veins (called the pampiniform plexus) in the spermatic cord (the cord attached to the testicle).

Most of the time, varicoceles cause no problems and are harmless. Less often varicoceles can cause pain, problems with reduced fertility, or cause one testicle to grow slower or shrink.

Surgery can be used to treat a varicocele if it is reducing fertility or causing problems with growth.


Hydrocele occurs when fluid collects in the thin sheath surrounding a testicle.

Hydrocele is common in newborns babies and usually disappears without treatment by age one. Older boys and adult men can develop a hydrocele due to inflammation or injury within the scrotum.

If you would like to speak to our team about lumps or swelling of your testes, please call us on 0161 327 1269 or email us at info@urologyclinics.co.uk.

This article is intended to inform and give insight but not treat, diagnose or replace the advice of a doctor. Always seek medical advice with any questions regarding a medical condition.